Vitamin C Foundation

Vitamin C Articles

GULO: The One Thing To Know About Vitamin C

Vitamin C Foundation
By Owen Fonorow
The reason why vitamin C is a panacea for so many conditions is that humans evolved to require a great deal more C than we can eat. Unlike our ancestors, however, we can no longer make vitamin C ourselves.

All humans are born with a genetic defect. Our livers are missing a key enzyme; xl-gulono-§-lactone oxidase that is required to synthesize ascorbic acid from glucose. The loss of a single gene prevents you from making your own vitamin C. The negative mutation of the so-called GULO gene has been well studied in both human and primate genomes. If this negative mutation could be corrected, most people wouldn't need to supplement vitamin C.

Thanks to modern science, it is easy and inexpensive for you to correct for this damaged gene: supplement your diet with vitamin C — ascorbic acid or one of its salts.

As with any inherited malfunction, our inability to produce the GULO enzyme has many negative consequences. Most people are taught to believe that they can obtain enough vitamin C in their foods, consequently they supplement too little. While the food argument generally holds true for most other vitamins, the idea that you can obtain the vitamin C necessary in food is countered by the facts; out of all the species alive today, we are almost alone with a GULO-like genetic defect.

Most living things today make their own vitamin C and do not have to eat it. They do this by converting glucuronic acid (C6H10O7) derived from glucose (C6H12O6) into ascorbic acid (C6H8O6). The well known exceptions that cannot make their own vitamin C are guinea pigs, fruit eating bats, the red vented bulbul bird and some higher primates (e.g. gorillas and we humans).

With a working GULO gene, humans would make their own vitamin C in "fantastic" amounts by today's standards.

In the 1930s, Dr. Claus W. Jungblut, an early pioneer of vitamin C therapy, discovered that only primates and guinea pigs were susceptible to scurvy as well as anaphylactic shock, pulmonary tuberculosis, diptheritic intoxication, a poliomyelitis-like viral infection and a viral form of leukemia. None of the vitamin C synthesizing laboratory animals had susceptibility to these diseases.

Gorillas in captivity are susceptible to the same set of diseases and we share other conditions with these primates that are not common in other species (e.g., cardiovascular disease[] ). Linus Pauling elucidated in his Unified Theory of Cardiovascular Disease paper, and in a video-taped lecture, that a large consequence of our genetic deficiency is our tendency to develop cardiovascular disease; a primary cause of death. (See:

Correcting for the GULO mutation requires much more vitamin C than is commonly recommended by medical and governmental authorities. Animals produce much more vitamin C in their bodies than what we can obtain from the meager dosages often recommended for humans. Adjusted for body weight and under ordinary conditions, animals have been found to produce between 3,000 mg and 13,000 mg of ascorbic acid daily. A goat under stress may produce over 100,000 mg of ascorbic acid daily. As these animals make their own ascorbic acid, the molecule enters the blood stream intact (directly from the liver or kidney).

Ascorbate (another term now used for vitamin C) is volatile and reacts easily with other substances. This means we lose some vitamin C when we eat it during digestion. Scientists have estimated that 50% or more of the vitamin C taken by mouth may not reach the blood stream intact (is not bio-available). The loss increases as the dosage by mouth increases. (Note: The new truly encapsulated liposomal vitamin C increases bio-availability and may even be 100% absorbed at the recommended dosages. See Foundation Approved Liposomal Vitamin C)

Linus Pauling according to a biography[] did not begin taking vitamin C until his sixth decade of life. At the age when most of us retire, Pauling instead became a champion of vitamin C. Pauling wrote that his daily intake of ascorbic acid was 18,000 mg. Pauling's reasoning behind his dosage is interesting. He tells us during a 1980s video-taped lecture on Vitamin C and Cancer that his personal dosage was based on his body weight and the expected loss of ascorbate taken by mouth.

Pauling knew that on average, mammals of his body weight have evolved to make 9,000 mg of vitamin C throughout a typical day. Pauling experimentally determined that at this dosage, he lost approximately 50% of the vitamin C during digestion. For this reason he doubled the dosage an animal would produce and he consumed 18,000 mg daily in two divided dosages (i.e., 2 dosages of 9,000 mg twice daily). He said this 18 gram daily dosage would account for the loss, and approximate the blood and tissue concentrations of species that make their own ascorbate.

Linus Pauling pointed out that vitamin C has no known toxicity, so there is little risk from this dosage. Pauling lived to the age of 93, and as his last video lecture on heart disease proves (given without notes), his mind at age 92 was still sharp and exceptional.

Take Home Message

We may be at the onset of creating human life spans longer than 125 years. Linus Pauling anticipated that anti-aging science would discover significant longevity benefits from taking high amounts of vitamin C. He stated this belief in his still authoritative book How To Live Longer and Feel Better. Pauling wrote that although he couldn't prove it at the time, he believed that by taking his recommended high anti-oxidant regimen, especially vitamin C, human beings could extend their period of healthy life, perhaps 20 or 30 years.

As more people become interested in the new anti-aging nutrient science and technologies, including and especially telomerase activation medicine, they may not consider vitamin C all that important. We beg to differ. In our opinion, there is no other nutritional supplement more important for its anti-aging properties. It makes little sense to attempt to extend life while ignoring this easily correctable genetic defect. Any anti-aging and life span extending technology, in our opinion, begins with Vitamin C replacement to account for the damaged GULO gene.

Ebola - Does This Super-Virus Cause a Super-Vitamin C Deficiency?

Vitamin C Foundation Vitamin C experts such as Dr. Robert Cathcart, III, MD and Dr. Thomas E Levy, MD, JD have published their ideas for treating the Ebola virus with high dosages of Vitamin C. They have noted that the symptoms of the Ebola virus are similar to a very rapid and powerful scurvy (i.e. a super-vitamin C deficiency). Even if this isn't the primary action of the virus, the effect is the same because any powerful viral infection will deplete ascorbate tissues stores per Dr. Cathcart's Titrating Vitamin C to Bowel Tolerance finding. The sicker a person is, the more vitamin C they can tolerate without diarrhea.

It may very well be that large Bowel Tolerance dosages of vitamin C against Ebola are too little too late. Instead, if you, like most people, don't have ready access to intravenous vitamin C, you may want to employ the Russel Jaffe, MD, PhD, Vitamin C Calibration/Cleanse protocol. This protocol was designed for heavy metal detoxification, and it should not be discontinued before the flush because any toxins mobilized by vitamin C need to be excreted.

Note: The Foundation understands that Dr. Jaffe recommends an ascorbate salt rather than ascorbic acid for this procedure. There are reasons to believe that ascorbic acid would be twice as effective, and we believe that all forms of pure vitamin C may be used, perhaps at the same time. See: Forum Discussion on Jaffe Cleanse/Calibration.

In case of suspected Ebola we recommend the following Jaffe protocol.

Jaffe Cleanse:
  1. Setup: Determine the largest single dosage that will not cause diarrhea. (This step must be done ahead of time, i.e. right now, if you are not a regular vitamin C "mega" doser.) The one-time dosage is usually 1.5 gram (healthy people) or 3 grams (feeling poorly) or 6 (up to 12 grams - chronically ill).

  2. Cleanse: Take the one-time maximum dosage every 15 minutes until the flush, i.e., watery discharge (loose stools don't count.) The watery flush usually occurs before the two hour mark.
    Note: When you are well, you can use Dr. Jaffe's Calibration procedure to help you estimate how much vitamin C you should be taking daily. The optimal daily amount is usually put at 75% of your two-hour calibration.

    Figure 3:
    "Based on ascorbate calibration, it is evident from Figure 3 that 80% of people require at least 10 g of ascorbate (vitamin C) daily for optimum physiological function, and this amount can be as high as 130g/day." - Russell Jaffe, MD, PhD
    Ascorbate Calibration as measure of ReDox, methylation efficiency, and inflammation or repair deficit (PDF). See Appendix I, Page 32 (Originally published in the Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients.)

Promise of Liposomal Vitamin C Against Acute Infection

Thomas Levy, MD, JD, has published his clinical observations that highly encapsulated liposomal vitamin C may exceed the effectiveness of intravenous vitamin C clinically by a factor of 10! (gram for gram). The Foundation refers to this effect fighting acute infections as the Levy Amplification Effect.

Some experts disagree, such as Dr. Steven Hickey, PhD, who believes that it is impossible for liposomal vitamin C to be more effective than intravenous vitamin C which is infused directly into the vein. The argument is a matter or reasonableness. However, this argument is not based on evidence from clinical studies, and Hickey may be ignoring an important clinical effect. We have observed the very same effect against infection as we amass reports from users of our our new China-FREE Liposomal Vitamin C.

Daniel Chong: How Vitamin C Can Help You Live a Better Life

Vitamin C Foundation Informed lecture on the history, basics and dosage range for ascorbate. Dr. Daniel Chong, N.D.

Autism: Food for Thought

Do you have a child with Autism, or know someone with Autism or other neurological disorders?

If so, This must-see video explains how one mother changed her autistic child's life with diet.

Vitamins C & E Cut ICU Deaths in Half...
Randomized, Prospective Trial: The early administration of antioxidant supplementation using alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid reduces the incidence of organ failure and shortens Intensive Care Unit (ICU) length of stay in this cohort of critically ill surgical patients.
Scurvy in Intensive Care...
"Despite daily administration of 130mg/day of vitamin C since his admission, his ascorbic acid blood levels had collapsed. Administration of 1g/day relieved the symptoms within four weeks."
Vitamin C Helps Prevent Goutbad link
Recently, study was published that assessed the relationship between vitamin C intake and risk of gout in almost 47,000 men. All the men had no history of gout when they entered the study. Their intakes of vitamin C (via diet and supplements) were assessed every 4 years over a 20-year period.

Risk of gout was found to be lower in individuals with higher vitamin C intake. Compared to individuals with a total vitamin C intake of less than 250 mg per day, those with total intakes of 500 - 999 mg per day had a 17 percent reduced risk of gout. For intakes of 1,000 - 1,499 mg and 1,500 mg or more per day, the risk of getting gout was down by 34 and 45 percent, respectively.

The authors of this study also looked at the relationship between amounts of vitamin C ingested in supplement form only and risk of gout. Here again, higher supplemental levels were associated with a reduced risk of gout. Compared to those who did not supplement with vitamin C, those supplementing with 1,000 - 1,499 mg and 1,500 mg or more of vitamin C per day were found to be at 34 and 45 percent reduced risk of gout, respectively.

These results suggest that vitamin C, either from diet or supplements, is associated with a reduced risk of gout.

Vitamin C in the News Published by

Ascorbate Calibration as measure of ReDox, methylation efficiency, and inflammation or repair deficit (PDF) See Appendix I, Page 32 (Originally published in the Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients.)
"Based on ascorbate calibration, it is evident from Figure 3 that 80% of people require at least 10 g of ascorbate (vitamin C) daily for optimum physiological function, and this amount can be as high as 130g/day." - Russell Jaffe, MD, PhD

Figure 3:

Babies deficient in vitamin C may be at an elevated risk for mental development and memory problems
Professor Jens Lykkesfeldt, who led the research group, said that the research suggests children may also be at risk of learning disabilities if they receive insufficient levels of vitamin C in early life.
No Deaths From Vitamins or Minerals
(OMNS, October 14, 2009) There was not even one death caused by a vitamin or dietary mineral in 2007, according to the most recent statistics available from the U.S. National Poison Data System. The 132-page annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers published in the journal Clinical Toxicology shows zero deaths from multiple vitamins; zero deaths from any of the B vitamins; zero deaths from vitamins A, C, D, or E; and zero deaths from any other vitamin. (1)

Furthermore, there were zero deaths in 2007 from any dietary mineral supplement. This means there were no fatalities from calcium, chromium, zinc, colloidal silver, selenium, iron, or multimineral supplements. There was one death from chronic overdose of magnesium hydroxide, commonly known as the laxative/antacid milk of magnesia, and it was inappropriately listed in the "dietary supplement" reporting category. Nutritional supplements do not contain magnesium hydroxide.

Over half of the U.S. population takes daily nutritional supplements. Even if each of those people took only one single tablet daily, that makes 154,000,000 individual doses per day, for a total of over 56 billion doses annually. Since many persons take more than just one vitamin or mineral tablet, the numbers are considerably higher, and the safety of nutritional supplements is all the more remarkable.

Vitamin C deficiency may impair brain development
A new study suggests that pregnant women need to have sufficient intake of vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid to prevent their fetuses from becoming victims of brain impairment that is associated with memory and learning capability later in their childhood.
A new way of looking at scurvy we are not all alike and our requirements for vitamin C may differ...
Chinese make vitamin C Breakthrough that reportedly provides hope in preventing the onset of CVD and Type 2 diabetes.
Video: Canadians Praise Intravenous Vitamin Treatments
"Mercury from Dental Amalgams causes 80-90% of Alzheimer's Disease" - John Ely, Ph.D.
John Hopkins University has now found that combining vitamin E and vitamin C supplements can dramatically reduce the risk of Alzheimer's...
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid): Use of this vitamin is the most effective method of raising the levels of the mercury detoxification compound glutathione.
Vitamin C helps prevent contrast-mediated nephropathy...bad link
Contrast-mediated nephropathy is a decrease in kidney function diagnosed by an increase in serum creatinine which results from contrast agents used in radiographic procedures such as coronary angiography...
Vitamin C The Cure for West Nile Virus? (With results like this, why aren't medical authorities trying to find out?)
Age-dependent telomere shortening is slowed down by enrichment of intracellular vitamin C...
"Here, we succeeded in artificial slowdown of age-dependent telomere shortening to 52-62% of the untreated control, in human vascular endothelial cells, by addition of the oxidation-resistant type of ascorbic acid (Asc).

Asc-2-O-phosphate (Asc2P), which concurrently achieved both extension of cellular life-span and prevention of cell size enlargement indicative of cellular senescence.

Thus, age-dependent telomere-shortening can be decelerated by suppression of intracellular oxidative stress and/or by telomerase retention, both of which are achieved by enriched Asc(in) but not by extracellular Asc overwhelmingly."

Vitamins A, C, E and the mineral Zinc Combat Age-Related Blindness...bad link
"In Monday's report, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions in Baltimore tried to estimate how many people in the United States alone would benefit from increasing supplement use.

They concluded there are 8 million Americans at least 55 years old thought to be at high risk for the problem. If all the people at risk took the supplements used in the earlier study, more than 300,000 of them would avoid advanced macular degeneration and any associated vision loss during the next five years, the study said."

Vitamin C's Effect on Skin Cancer
"I've had two more people rid themselves of basal cell carcinoma by wiping on concentrated solution of vitamin C. One used sodium ascorbate and the other buffered C from Life Extension Foundation. Both scabbed up and left clean scars in one to two weeks depending on how large the thing is.

There's no question that vitamin C is a big gun in the anti-cancer arsenal!

This would be a good test to see if a mole is cancerous or not. Just rub on the C solution and if it crusts up and falls off it was, if nothing happens then it's probably not cancer. We know from Dr. Riordan's research that C is toxic to melanoma in cell culture." (Read more)


Supplements heal pressure ulcers faster...
Lead author Katherine Desneves wrote: "Only patients receiving additional arginine, vitamin C and zinc demonstrated a clinically significant improvement in pressure ulcer healing."
Biochemistry of Lyme Disease: Borrelia burgdorferi Spirochete/Cyst...
"Major Diseases Linked to Lyme Spirochete"

Lyme Spirochete Found in the Brain of MS Patients

The causative organism of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, has been found in the brains of many victims of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Listing 5: Lyme Disease Linked to Four Major Diseases Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Systemic Scleroderma and Arthritis

ALZHEIMER'S: The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) has been found in the brain of many Alzheimer patients. Also in the brain, antigens and genes of Bb have been co-localized with beta-amyloid deposits.

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi has been found in the brain of many multiple sclerosis (MS) patients along with amyloid deposits. MS has been linked to Lyme disease both seasonally and by location.

SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA: The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) has been found in the blood in systemic scleroderma. Treatment with antibiotics effective against Bb returned the skin to normal.

LYME-INDUCED ARTHRITIS: Only certain strains of Bb are capable of causing the symptoms of arthritis.

A Cure for Lyme Disease?
After 13 years of suffering with Lyme disease, a possible cure has been stumbled upon. A cumulative effect of much research has produced the possibility that salt and vitamin C may be all that is needed to beat this elusive illness.
Lyme Disease — Wiped Out By I.V. Vitamin C...
NOTE TO LYME SUFFERS: If you suffer Lyme disease, and want to try the following 6 g vitamin C, 6 g salt treatment, we recommend following Brownstein's advice and using unrefined salt.

Our Readers Have Suggested Alternate Forms of Unrefined Salt

  1. Himalayan salt ("unrefined salt that comes from in the Himalayan Mountains")
  2. Real salt (May go through fewer production processes than Celtic.)
  3. Celtic (Recommended by Brownstein and shown to be clinically effective in his practice)

Refined Versus Unrefined Salt

Dr. David Brownstein reports that his clinical experience, and literature research, indicates that refined refined salt (such as ordinary table salt) and unrefined salt are different. He considers ordinary, highly refined (e.g. table) salt to be poisonous. He recommends unrefined Celtic Sea Salt ( and compares it to a health food, providing more than 80 minerals.
Reversing Diabetes Type II, Glucose-Ascorbate Antagonism, and their Impact on Reversing Heart Disease ...
"If Linus Pauling was correct that a chronic vitamin C deficiency causes cardiovascular disease, why then do patients respond so well after we put them on Omega-3 fish oils?"
Cancer patients may very well tolerate the use of certain dietary supplementsbad link
From time to time technical articles are misinterpreted by the media or contain conclusions that are not supported by the data contained or by work done in other laboratories.

"The article's overgeneralization has resulted in news headlines warning doctors and patients to avoid the use of all dietary supplements during cancer therapy. If true, a warning should also be issued for nutrient-rich foods like fruits, vegetables and nuts; especially if concentrated into juices. Since there is conflicting data and these nutrients are so essential, I do not support either warning." - Neil E. Levin

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is Heart Failure Secondary to Mitochondrial Malfunction...
Implications for Treatment:

Co-enzyme Q 10 300 - 360mg (the oil of the engine - moves electrons from one molecule to another)

L-carnitine 2,000 - 3,000mg (the oil of the engine - moves ATP and ADP across mito membranes)

D-ribose 15grams (raw material to make new ATP)

Magnesium 400 - 800mg (the spark plugs - fires up many enzyme reactions)

To this I would also add niacinamide 500mgs daily (the raw material to make NAD). I would expect this cocktail of supplements to work best taken together, not as individual supplements.

Incidentally this helps explain why some CFS sufferers have such problems with drug medication and indeed this may help to point towards treatment. All my CFS patients feel much worse on statin (cholesterol-lowering) drugs because these stop the body from making its own Co Q 10. Beta blockers, tricyclic antidepressants and phenothiazines also block Co Q 10 synthesis.

Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations and fat distribution in 19,068 British men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk cohort study.bad link
Vitamin C Levels Inversely Proportional to Fat Concentrations...
"The waist-to-hip ratio was inversely related to plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in both men and women. This association was independent of body mass index, age, vitamin supplement use, cigarette smoking, and socioeconomic group. Waist and hip circumferences showed separate and opposite associations with plasma ascorbic acid concentrations, independent of body mass index and other covariates.
"It's illegal for me to work in California now anyway because it's a felony there to treat cancer with alternative medicine. That law is still on the books. So I couldn't practice there." - Nick Gonzalez, MD
"Cancer-Enzyme Doc" Nick Gonzalez on The Threat of Socialized Medicine
"Medical science always thrives when there's freedom to think independently. Socialized medicine doesn't allow that because it requires physicians to practice according to pre-set standards. That's the way the Canadian system is. You can't deviate from those standards at all. The trouble is that medicine is not a fixed science. It requires creativity, originality in thinking in new ways. Socialized medicine doesn't allow that. If socialized medicine worked, they would have had to build a Berlin Wall to keep people out. Instead, they had to build the Berlin Wall to keep people in because they were trying to escape socialism and socialized medicine.

If Cuban medicine were so good, they wouldn't have had that episode of blindness about ten years ago where fifteen or twenty thousand Cubans - it might even be as many as thirty thousand - went blind because of a vitamin deficiency. There wasn't a single Cuban doctor who could diagnose it properly. It took a charitable team of American doctors that were allowed to go in there to diagnose it. It was such a simple thing."


Our Rebuttal to a Nov 2005 Story in the Malaysian New Straits Times Online

India Researchers: "Vitamin C merits close scrutiny for the treatment of heart disease"...
Not only is Vitamin C Nature's Perfect Statin for inhibiting HMG-CoA Reductase and lowering cholesterol, but consider this finding...

"[Our] study, which explored the effect of statins and vitamin C on transcriptional expression of gene coding for this nuclear receptor/transcription factor family within mononuclear cells, revealed for the first time that both mevastatin and vitamin C have common action in that they significantly downregulate the expression of PPAR (alpha, gamma) genes and upregulate LXR-alpha gene expression as compared to the control."

Vitamin E Extends Lifespan...bad link
  • Male mice showed a 40% increase in median lifespan (to 85 ± 4 weeks from 61 ± 4).
  • 17% increase in maximal lifespan (to 136 weeks from 116 weeks).
  • Increases in the ability to perform tests measuring neuromuscular performance (high-wire tightrope) and cognitive exploratory activity (T-maze); the increases on both tests ranged 9%-24% at 52 weeks, and 28%-45% at 78 weeks of age.
  • Brain alpha-tocopherol content increased 2.5-fold in male mice taking vitamin E.
  • Vitamin E supplementation offset various measures of mitochondrial function loss in a range of 37%-66% at the 52- and 78-week test points.
  • All results were significant to a greater than 99% confidence level.
Asthma Treatment That Works...bad link
Effective asthma treatment is readily available with cheap, safe and convenient vitamin C. The only requirement is to take enough vitamin C to be effective.
"Thanks for posting that wonderful vitamin C & asthma article. I can also vouch for the use of quercetin - 4 doses a day has eliminated my chronic asthma. I have not used any prescription asthma meds for over a year."

God bless - Paul L.
Morrisville, PA

How to Talk Your Cardiologist out of Drugs and Surgery...bad link
As the pressure is increased, some physicians may exhibit anger, knowing that few patients wish to provoke anger in their doctors. If your cardiologist becomes angry, ask yourself why should questions regarding potentially safe and effective alternatives elicit anger?

Vitamin C Foundation

Study Finds Vitamin C Can Kill Drug-Resistant TB

Published on May 21, 2013

Dr. William Jacobs, Jr. has determined that vitamin C kills drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) bacteria in laboratory culture. The paper was published online May 21, 2013 in Nature Communications. Dr. Jacobs is professor of microbiology & immunology and of genetics at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Dr. Jacobs is also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. See accompanying release: Study Finds Vitamin C Can Kill Drug-Resistant TB and the youtube video.

Vitamin C Foundation

Linus Pauling Institute Fails Linus Pauling.

The truth about vitamin C: Vitamin C: Myths And Reality Outside The Research Laboratory By Bill Sardi.

Vitamin C Linked to Reduced Stroke Risk Finally reported by a mainstream media.

Intravenous Vitamin C Benefits Mesothelioma and other Cancers.

L-Carnitine Significantly Improves Patient Outcomes Following Heart Attack, Study Suggests
Apr. 11, 2013. L-carnitine significantly improves cardiac health in patients after a heart attack, say a multicenter team of investigators in a study published today in Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Their findings, based on analysis of key controlled trials, associate L-carnitine with significant reduction in death from all causes and a highly significant reduction in ventricular arrhythmias and anginal attacks following a heart attack, compared with placebo or control.

In an odd coincidence, only 3 days prior to the release of the real Mayo Clinic study about carnitine, a story with the opposite information about carnitine was released, per this article in the Huffington post L-Carnitine, Nutrient In Red Meat, Linked With Heart Disease

The first story was discussed by our forum at this topic

Amazing 10-Times Anti-Cancer Effect of Mushroom D-Fraction and Vitamin C Together Make it into a Mainstream Journal
Induction of Cell Death in Renal Cell Carcinoma With Combination of D-Fraction and Vitamin C.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the combination of PDF and VC can become highly cytotoxic, inducing severe cell death in ACHN cells.
Oxidative Stress: A Novel and Efficient Strategy to Kill Cancer Cells
We explored therefore a selective exposure of cancer cells to an oxidative stress induced by pro-oxidant mixtures containing pharmacological doses of vitamin C and a redox active compound such as menadione (vitamin K3). Indeed, the combination of vitamin C (which accumulates in hepatoma cells) and a quinone undergoing a redox cycling (vitamin K3) leads to an oxidative stress that kills cancer cells in a selective manner.
Anti-freeze Tainted Vitamin C Makes its Way to USA from China...bad link
A Minneapolis-based food firm this week sued one of its ingredient suppliers, alleging that antifreeze-tainted vitamin C made its way from China into thousands of boxes of Malt-O-Meal-branded cereal.

Note: Vitamin C Foundation Approved® Vitamin C is NOT Made in China

Even Low Dose Vitamin C Plus Zinc Supplements Fight Common Cold (two studies)
It is amazing that researchers from a major drug company reported two trials in The Journal of International Medical Research that demonstrated that taking vitamin C plus zinc supplements helps relieve the common cold symptoms and reduce the illness duration.

Silvia Maggini at Bayer Consumer Care Ltd in Basel, Switzerland and colleagues presented data from two preliminary, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in which patients with the common cold were given a combination of 1000 mg vitamin C and 10 mg zinc for five days.

In both trials, the vitamin C plus zinc supplement nonsignificantly reduced rhinorrhoea duration by 9 to 27 percent. In an analysis of combined data from the two trials of 94 subjects, the vitamin C plus zinc supplement reduced rhinorrhoea over a 5-day treatment more effectively than placebo.

New Study Shows Vitamin C Prevents Bone Loss in Animal Models
Researchers at Mount Sinai School of Medicine have shown for the first time in an animal model that vitamin C actively protects against osteoporosis, a disease affecting large numbers of elderly women and men in which bones become brittle and can fracture. The findings are published in the October 8 online edition of PLoS ONE.
Higher RDA for Vitamin C Needed, How Much and Why
The result, according to Frei, is that "Significant numbers of people in the US and around the world are deficient in vitamin C, and there's growing evidence that more of this vitamin could help prevent chronic disease."
Higher Levels of Vitamin C Help Cut Heart Disease, Cancer
Washington: The recommended dietary allowance, or RDA, of vitamin C is less than half what it should be, scientists have argued in a recent report.
IV Vitamin C Achieves Clinical Success with Prostate and Breast Cancerbad link
IV (intravenous) vitamin C therapy has already been clinically proven to markedly improve quality of life for cancer patients, but a new landmark study has shown for the first time it can reduce inflammation and tumor markers in prostate cancer and breast cancer patients. Inflammation markers reduced in 76 percent of cancer patients. The science behind IV vitamin C as a cancer therapy is now advancing faster than ever before, with six clinical trials currently underway worldwide, including colorectal, prostate, pancreatic and other cancers.

Vitamin C, Vitamin A Blood Serum Levels Found to be Low in People with Dementia.
The concentration of vitamin C and beta-carotene in the serum of those with Alzheimer's disease-patients were significantly lower than in the blood of control subjects, but there was no such difference between the groups who took vitamin E, lycopene and coenzyme Q10. Potential confounding factors such as education, civil status, body mass index, consumption of alcohol and tobacco were considered in the statistical analysis.
Study: Vitamin C Helps Children with Autism
Michelle Cobb Dolske of University of Alabama at Birmingham in Birmingham, Alabama and colleagues tested vitamin C in children with autism and found supplementation of this vitamin at a dose of 8 grams per 70kg per day for 30 weeks reduced symptom severity.
Study: Serum Vitamin C and other Antioxidants Reduce Menopausal Symptoms
Monday Sept 3, 2012 ( -- A Japanese study recently published in the journal Climacteric suggests that maintaining a high antioxidative potential by taking antioxidant supplements such as such as vitamin E and vitamin C, Vitamin A and Carotenoids, Selenium, CoEnzyme Q10, Alpha-lipoic acid may help reduce menopausal symptoms like hot flashes in women who are experiencing the transition of menopausal status. The study led by J.T. Chen and K. Kotani of Jui-Tung Chen Clinic in Tokyo found severity of menopausal symptoms inversely linked to serum levels of antioxidant potential in women at menopause.
Superbug Succumbs to Vitamin-Boosted Immune System
Researchers found that vitamin B3 (nicotinamide, NAM) pretreatment boosted levels of C/EBP. in neutrophils, and resulted in up to 1,000-fold greater level of pathogen clearance after three hours when compared with untreated blood.
Vitamin C Improves Sperm DNA Quality in Older Men
Scientists assessed 80 healthy male volunteers between 22 and 80 years old. The men over 44 who had the most vitamin C in their diet had 20 percent less sperm DNA damage compared to their peers who consumed the least vitamin C, the researchers said
Study: Asthma/COPD Sufferers Worse when Vitamin C Blood Levels Low
People who have asthma and COPD are more vulnerable to particulate air pollution if they have low levels of vitamin C in their blood, a study from London found.
Study: Intravenous Vitamin C Relieves Pain Induced by Herpes Zoster Virus
Intravenous injection of vitamin C can help relieve pain and dermatologic symptoms of shingles induced by herpes zoster, a new study in the April 2012 issue of Medical Science Monitor.
New Function of Vitamin C: Treating Alzheimer's disease
"When we treated brain tissue from mice suffering from Alzheimer's disease with vitamin C, we could see that the toxic protein aggregates were dissolved. Our results show a previously unknown model for how vitamin C affects the amyloid plaques", says Katrin Mani, reader in Molecular Medicine at Lund University.
Vitamin C Shown to Boost Cell Regeneration and Aid Stem Cell Research
According to a new study published by Cell Press, vitamin C boosts the production of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which offer a potential for regenerative medicine.
Vitamin C 'Cures' Mice with Accelerated Aging Disease
In the research report, a team of Canadian scientists shows that vitamin C stops and even reverses accelerated aging in a mouse model of Werner's syndrome, but the discovery may also be applicable to other progeroid syndromes.

Researchers Stop Diabetes Damage with High Doses of Vitamin Cbad link
Researchers at the Harold Hamm Oklahoma Diabetes Center have found a way to stop the damage caused by Type 1 diabetes with the combination of insulin and a common vitamin found in most medicine cabinets.

While neither therapy produced desired results when used alone, the combination of insulin to control blood sugar together with the use of Vitamin C, stopped blood vessel damage caused by the disease in patients with poor glucose control. "We had tested this theory on research models, but this is the first time anyone has shown the therapy's effectiveness in people," said Michael Ihnat, Ph.D., principal investigator and a pharmacologist at the OU College of Medicine Department of Cell Biology.

Vitamin C "A Must" During Pregnancybad link
A new study has announced that poor absorption of vitamin C during pregnancy may decrease a baby's chances of survival.

Research published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation found that a specific protein called Slc23a1 may regulate the ability of a newborn's kidneys to absorb the nutrient. Having adequate levels of vitamin C during pregnancy can ensure that a number of bodily systems run smoothly.

2011: Vitamin C Strengthens Eye and Brain Function
"We found that cells in the retina need to be bathed' in relatively high doses of vitamin C, inside and out, to function properly."
Total vitamin C, Ascorbic Acid, and Dehydroascorbic Acid (Oxidized Vitamin C) Concentrations in Plasma of Critically Ill Patients
Supports similar findings by Willis in 1950s that chronically ill patients have very low vitamin C levels.
2011: Low Plasma Vitamin C Linked to Cataract
The tests and analysis revealed vitamin C was significantly inversely associated with cataract, while lutein, zeaxanthin, retinol, .-carotene, and .-tocopherol were linked to a much smaller effect on cataract. On type of cataract (nuclear, posterior subcapsular or cortical), vitamin C had a similar inverse association, while the other antioxidants had no significantly observable association.

New Books and Videos

Vitamin C Foundation

Food for Thought

Do you have a child with Autism, or know someone with Autism or other neurological disorders?

If so, this must-see video explains how one mother changed her autistic child's life with diet.

New Levy book "Primal Panacea" about vitamin C.


Dr. Levy explains HOW vitamin C works, i.e., how a single molecule can be the universal antidote. His theory is a must read for every medical doctor. USE COUPON CODE: LE59P1 for $10 off every book you order at

Dr. Chris Shade's (Quicksilver Scientific) Mercury Detox Lecture at the Diane Meyers 2009 Mercury Symposium as (PDF) or larger (Powerpoint).

Mercury Poisoning: IV/C Case Report (pdf) This article published in the July 2011 Townsend Letter supports our contention that Cathcart's method of mixing sodium ascorbate is superior to the commercial IV/C products, esp. for brain related issues; e.g., higher pH, gentler on veins, no preservatives, more stable and thus more powerful, etc. Forum Mercury Case Archive

The effectiveness of vitamin C in preventing and relieving the symptoms of virus-induced respiratory infections.
RESULTS: Overall, reported flu and cold symptoms in the test group decreased 85% compared with the control group after the administration of megadose Vitamin C.

CONCLUSION: Vitamin C in megadoses administered before or after the appearance of cold and flu symptoms relieved and prevented the symptoms in the test population compared with the control group.

Pharmacokinetics of vitamin C: Insights into the Oral and Intravenous Administration of Ascorbate.
There is a strong advocacy movement for large doses of vitamin C. Some authors argue that the biological half-life for vitamin C at high plasma levels is about 30 minutes, but these reports are the subject of some controversy. NIH researchers established the current RDA based upon tests conducted 12 hours (24 half lives) after consumption. The dynamic flow model refutes the current low-dose recommendations for dietary intakes and links Pauling's mega-dose suggestions with other reported effects of massive doses of ascorbate for the treatment of disease.
Rationale and impact of vitamin C in clinical nutrition...
"In critically ill patients and after severe burns, the rapid restoration of depleted ascorbate levels with high-dose parenteral vitamin C may reduce circulatory shock, fluid requirements and oedema."
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Nutritional Supplementation During Acute Illness...
Oral nutritional supplementation of acutely ill patients improved nutritional status and led to a statistically significant reduction in the number of non-elective readmissions
Intravenous Vitamin C Therapy Excellent technical reference on IVC.
Ascorbic Acid Orally - Not for IV Sodium Ascorbate Only for IV Infusions.
Vitamin C and immunity: an assessment of the evidence. (Mainstream Review)
"The high concentration of ascorbate in leucocytes and its rapid expenditure during infection and phagocytosis suggests a role for the vitamin in the immune process. Evidence published to date shows an involvement in the migration and phagocytosis by macrophages and leucocytes, as well as the induction and expression of delayed hypersensitivity."
Interview with Dr. Kalokerinos... Argument Against Vaccinations
"Dr. Kalokerinos thought differently. He pinpointed the increase in vaccination campaigns as the reason why, at a certain point, up to half of the vaccinated Aboriginal infants died, obviously from an acute vitamin C deficiency provoked by the vaccination."

Bad News
Pharma's Don't-Take-Vitamins Study Diametrically Opposed by Valid Study
"Have you not asked yourself why vitamins (!) are suddenly an issue and who is behind it? As food is increasingly degraded, are you not aware how crucial supplementation for vital nutrients is? Are you aware that disease is an investment industry and this is in the service of it?

Huffington Post just published Women Who Take Vitamin Supplements May Have Increased Death Risk, at precisely the moment that the pharmaceutical industry is in health attack mode to limit access to nutritional supplements in the US. How coincidental!

The AMA, which is heavily funded by Pharma, put out a study purporting to show that vitamins are a threat to people's lives..."

More Absurd FDA Action Against Vitamin C

In a time of budget cutting and deficits, the FDA somehow has the capacity to go after one of the safest substances known!

FDA also noted packaging materials place product names in close proximity to the words .Cold Remedy." Further, website claims at issue include .Extra boost of Vitamin C in every RapidMelt," .Extra boost of Vitamin C and Echinacea in every RapidMelt," .Reduces the duration of cold symptoms when taken at the first sign of a cold."

FDA said these statements about the RapidMelts Vitamin C products are intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease in violation of section 201(g)(1)(B) of the Act (21 U.S.C. § 321(g)(1)(B)). Also, the statements say the products are intended to affect the structure or function of the body of man in violation of section 201(g)(1)(C) of the Act (21 U.S.C. § 321(g)(1)(C))

No Deaths from Vitamins - None at All in 27 Years Orthomolecular News Service

Deja vu at the FDA
"Now I find myself at odds once again with that underfunded, overworked and under appreciated defender of public safety responsible for protecting Americans from dangerous drugs. Despite all of these limitations, the FDA has somehow managed to find the resources to clamp down on. Vitamin C! Yes, ascorbic acid. Bottled sunshine. Probably the best studied, most researched and commonly used, plant based nutritional supplement known."

- Jonathan

Dr David Ayoub's Proof that Mercury Causes Autism

The Vitamin A and Vitamin D Controversy

The Cod Liver Oil Debate (from Weston-Price)bad link Vitamin A is not a Vitamin D Antagonist.
Contrary to information from the Vitamin D Council, and most recently, from the Life Extension Foundation," Vitamins A and D cooperate with one another. They are not antagonists, but large doses of one may cause harm when not accompanied by the other."

Since vitamin A is required as a signaling partner with vitamin D, vitamin D will increase the turnover of vitamin A. If vitamin A is provided in excess, the results are generally beneficial. Excess vitamin A is stored in the liver. However, when the liver's storage capacity is exceeded, the overload of vitamin A causes the cells to burst, damaging the liver and releasing storage forms of vitamin A into the systemic circulation that do not belong there. By increasing the utilization of vitamin A, vitamin D can help prevent vitamin A toxicity.

If vitamin A is in short supply, on the other hand, the results can be detrimental. By .stealing. all of the vitamin A needed to use for vitamin Dspecific functions, the body will not have enough vitamin A left to support the many other functions for which it is needed.this may partially explain the toxic effects of excess vitamin D.

Is patent 5,336,499 the general antidote for all bio warfare weapons? i.e. is it the cure for Lyme?

United States Patent  5,336,499
Antelman  August 9, 1994
Molecular crystal device for pharmaceuticals


A novel molecular scale device is described which is bactericidal,
fungicidal, viricidal and algicidal. The anti-pathogenic properties
of the device are attributed to electron activity indigenous to
diamagnetic semiconducting crystals of tetrasilver tetroxide (Ag.sub.4
O.sub.4) which contains two monovalent and two trivalent silver ions
in each molecular crystal. When the crystals are activated with an
oxidizing agent, they release electrons equivalent to 6.4.times.10.
sup.-19 watts per molecule which in effect electrocute pathogens.
A multitude of these devices are effective at such low concentrations
as 0.3 PPM used as preservatives in a variety of formulations ranging
from cosmetics to pharmaceuticals. Indeed, they are intended as active
ingredients for pharmaceuticals formulated to destroy such pathogens
as Staphylococcus aureus, and epidermidis, the latter of which it
completely destroys in a nutrient broth culture of about 1 million
organisms at 0.6 PPM, or Candida albercans, the vaginal yeast infection
at 2.5 PPM, and the AIDS virus at 18 PPM.
Inventors:  Antelman; Marvin S. (Rehovot, IL)
Assignee:   Antelman Technologies, Ltd. (Providence, RI)
Appl. No.:  07/971,933
Filed:      November 5, 1992

Foundation Does Not Sell Vitamin C

The Foundation approves but does not technically "sell" vitamin C. Inteligent*Vitamin*C, Inc. (an Illinois corporation) is the company that actually markets our approved products. However, a portion of the proceeds from the sale of Vitamin C Foundation approved® fine vitamin C powders is used to fund Foundation research and activities.
Vitamin C Foundation Approved® is a registered trademark of the Vitamin C Foundation.
Quali-C® is a registered trademark of DSM Nutritional Products.
True-Liposomes™ is a trademark of The Vitamin C Foundation.
China-FREE™ is a trademark of Inteligent*Vitamin*C Inc.
Consider making a contribution to the nonprofit Vitamin C Foundation at the same time you place your order. As the Foundation is a recognized 501(c)(3), your donations are tax-deductible within the guidelines of U.S. law. Proceeds are used to fund this web site and the Foundation's initiatives.

The Internet's best source of news and information about Vitamin C - ascorbic acid!


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Cathcart's IVC preparation and bowel tolerance videos are now available on youtube.

Owen's Radio Interviews on the Jeff Rense Show Listen to show archive (Aug 14, 2008) The second hour with Pauling Therapy survivors Carol Smith and Carol 2 from Hawaii...

New: John Beard's 1911 book THE ENZYME TREATMENT OF CANCER AND ITS SCIENTIFIC BASIS Online Enzyme Treatment of cancer. Thanks to Edward Monson for scanning/OCRing this very rare book.

Updates: Stone's Book (Healing Factor) and Cathcart Videos Online Healing Factor. Many thanks to John Jenkins for scanning a providing the missing figures and diagrams.

Vitamin C Foundation